Fungarium Glossary

Adnate: Gills attatched broadly to the stalk . Adnexed: Gills attatched narrowly to the stalk. Amorphous: Lacking a patterned character, indistinct or unorganized in shape. Amyloid: Staining blue or black in iodine. Annulus: A collar of tissue found on a fungal stalk formed by the remains of a ruptured veil; also known as a ring. Apical Pore: An opening at the top of some gasteromycetes through which spores are released. Ascocarp: The fruiting body of an ascomycete. Ascogonium: The receptive or 'female' gametangium of ascomycete fungi.  Ascomycete: Belonging to subdivision Ascomycota. Ascus: The sac-shaped mother cell of ascomycetes in which spores are produced. Basidiocarp: The fruiting body of a basidiomycete. Basidiomycete: Belonging to subdivision Basidiomycota. Basidium: The club-shaped cell of basidiomycetes on which spores are formed. Bolete: A fleshy mushroom with pores rather than gills on the underside of its cap.  Bracket Fungus: Fungi with tough, shelf-shaped basidiocarps growing on trees or rotting wood, also known as shelf fungi or conks. Bruising: Changing color when handled or damaged. Button: A young fruiting body which has not yet opened up fully. Cap: The cap-shaped part of a fruiting body which supports the spore-bearing surface. Conidium: Asexual spores not contained within a sporangium, formed from specialized hyphae. Concentric: Sharing a common center. Convex: Curving outwards. Coral Fungus: Fungi with erect, branching fruiting bodies; often brightly colored. Cristate: Crested. Crust Fungus: Fungi with an unspecialized spore-bearing surface, often resupinate; similar in appearance to polypores but lacking actual pores. Decurrent (gills): Gills running down the stalk. Depressed: Flattened in shape or having a greater width than height. Dikaryon: A state midway through fertilization, after cytoplasmic fusion but before nucleic fusion. Dolipore: A central pore in a septum surrounded by a barrel-shaped swelling of the cell wall. Egg: The spore-containing capsule found in bird's nest fungi (Order Nidulariales); also, the immature fruiting body of species with a universal veil. Fibrillose: Having or consisting of threadlike structures or filaments. Free (gills): Gills not attatched to the stalk. Fruiting Body: The reproductive structure of a fungus. Gametangium: A cell or structure in which gametes are formed. Gamete: A haploid reproductive cell. Gasteromycete: Basidiomycete fungi in which the spore-bearing cells are enclosed by the fruiting body; no longer recognized as a valid Linnean taxon. Gills: Spore-producing blade-shaped structures on the underside of a fungal cap. Gleba: The spore-producing tissue of gasteromycetes. Hyaline: Colorless, transparent. Hypha: Threadlike tubular filaments, comprising the mycelium of a fungus. Jelly Fungus: Members of Order Tremellales, characterized by their gelatinous fruiting bodies. Karyogamy: Fusion of two haploid nuclei into a single diploid nucleus. Latex: A clear, milky, or colorless fluid secreted by members of the genus Lactarius. Luminescent: Glowing as a result of biological or chemical processes rather than heat or incandescence. Margin: The edge of the cap or gills. Mucilaginous: Slimy or gelatinous; or producing  slimy or gelatinous secretions. Mutualism: A close interaction or relationship between two species in which both derive benefits. Mycelium: The mass of hyphae forming the nonreproductive 'body' of a fungus. Mycorrhiza: The mutualistic assosiation between the hyphae of a fungus and the roots of a plant, wherein the plant provides the fungus with fixed carbon sugars and the fungus gives the plant greater access to minerals in the soil. Notched (gills): Abruptly adnexed, appearing as if a wedge of tissue had been removed. Parasitism: A close interaction between two species in which one benefits at the other's expense. Parthenosome: A membrane capping septal pores. Partial Veil: A layer of tissue which covers and protects the gills of some immature mushrooms. Peridiole: Small spore-containing capsules; the "eggs" of bird's nest fungi. Peridium: The outer layer of a gasteromycete fruiting body. Plane: Flat, lacking significant curvature. Polymorphic: Having more than one form or appearance when mature. Polypore: Tough, tree-dwelling fungi which bears spores in a specialized pore surface. Pore: The external mouth of the spore-bearing tubes of polypores and boletes. Punky: Spongy in texture. Radial: Arranged in spokes coming outward from a central point. Resupinate: Inverted, bent backward, or upside down in appearance. Rhizomorph: A cordlike structure consisting of fused or entangled hyphae, similar in function to a plant root. Ring: A collar of tissue found on a fungal stalk formed by the remains of a ruptured veil; also known as an annulus. Rusts: Members of Class Uredinomycetes, microscopic and often parasitic on plants. Scale: A patch of differentiated tissue, often a different color or texture than the surrounding flesh. Septum: A partition or cross-wall. Smuts: Members of Class Ustilaginomycetes, microscopic and invariably plant parasites. Species Complex: A group of organisms with identical or near-identical phenotypes currently classified as one species but which may, in fact, consist of multiple distinct genetic groups. Sporangium: A hollow structure in which spores are produced. Spore: A reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult form without fusion with another cell. Stalk: The stemlike structure supporting the cap of a mushroom. Sterigma: The stalklike structure of basidia from which spores emerge. Substrate: The surface or material on which an organism grows. Tooth Fungus: Basidiomycete fungi in which the underside of the cap bears conical spines rather than gills or pores. Umbonate: Having an upraised knob or bump at the center. Universal Veil: A layer of tissue covering the entire immature stage of some mushrooms. Viscid: Sticky or slimy when moist. Volva: The layer of tissue surrounding the stalk base after the rupture of the universal veil. Yeasts:A polyphyletic grouping of unicellular fungi with members from both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Rene Chelune rcheln at yahoo.com last updated 19 July 2008 Banner Photo by Mathew J. Wilson

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