Useful References

The Medicinal Herb Garden at Mahan House

Specific Plant Information

"The Physicians Desk Refference for Herbal Medicines" by the Medical Economics Company, 1998. "The Complete Medicinal Herbal" by Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersly, 1993.

Creation of the Garden

"Herbs, their Cultivation and Usage" by John and Rosemary Hemphill, Blandford Press, 1983. "The Herb Garden" by Sarah Garland, Penguin Books, 1984. "Herbs: How to Select, Grow, and Enjoy" by Norma Lathrop, HP Books, 1981.

History of Medicinal Plant Usage
Ackerknecht, E.H. 1973. Therapeutics: from the Primitives to the Twentieth Century. Hafner Press, New York. Akamasu, E. 1970. Modern Oriental Drugs. Yishiyakusha, Tokyo. Artiges, A. 1991. What are the legal requirements for the use of phytopharmaceutical drugs in France? J. Ethnopharmacol. 32:231-234. Arvigo, R., and M. Balick. 1993. Rainforest Remedies: 100 Healing Herbs of Belize. Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wis. Baisi, F. 1987. Report on Clinical Trial of Bilberry Anthocyanocides in the Treatment of Venous Insufficiency in Pregnancy and of Postpartum Hemorrhoids. Presidio Ospedaliero di Livorno, Italy. Baker, M.E. 1992. Evolution of regulation of steroid-mediated intercellular communication in vertebrates: insights from flavonoids, signals that mediate plant-rhizobia symbiosis. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41(3-8):301-308. Bauer, V., K. Jurcie, J. Puhlmann, and H. Wagner. 1988. Immunologische in-vivo und in-vitro untersuchungen mit echinacea-extrakten (Immunologic in vivo and in vitro studies on echinacea extracts). Arzneimittelforschung 38(2):276-281. Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.M., and J.A. Duke. 1994. Potential for synergistic action of phytochemicals in spices. In G. Charalambous, ed. Spices, Herbs, and Edible Fungi. Elsevier Sciences B.V., New York. Bedi, K.L., U. Zutshi, C.L. Chopra, and V. Amla. 1989. Picrorhiza kurroa, an Ayurvedic herb, may potentiate photochemotherapy in vitiligo. J. Ethnopharmacol. 27:347-352. Bensky, D. and A. Gamble. 1993. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica (revised edition). Eastland Press Inc., Seattle. Bode, J.C., U. Schmidt, and H.K. Durr. 1977. Silymarin for the treatment of acute viral hepatitis? Med. Klin. 72:513-518. Braunig, B., M. Dorn, Limburg, E. Knick, and Bausendorf. 1992. Echinacea purpureae radix for strengthening the immune response in flu-like infections. Zeitschrift fhr Phytotherapie 13:7-13. Buchman, D.D. 1980. Herbal Medicine. Gramercy Publishing Company, New York. Catlin, D.H., M. Sekera, and D.C. Adelman. 1993. Erythroderma associated with the ingestion of an herbal product. West. J. Med. 159:491-493. Champpault, G., J.D. Patel, and A.M. Bonnard. 1984. A double-blind trial of an extract of the plant Serenoo repens in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 18(3):461-462. Charles, V., and S.X. Charles. 1991. The use and efficacy of Adadirachta indica ADR (neem) and Curcuma longa (turmeric) in scabies. Tropical and Geographical Medicine (November):178-181. Chaudhury, R.R. 1992. Herbal Medicine for Human Health. World Health Organization (SEARO, No. 20). Chen, X. 1983. Protective and FFA metabolic effect of ginsenosides on myocardial ischemia. Journal of Medical Cell and Cardiology 25:121-123. Chen, X., Q.Y. Zhu, L.Y. Li, and X.L. Tang. 1982. Effect of ginsenosides on cardiac performance and hemodynamics of dogs. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 3:235-239. Cheng, X.J., Y.L. Liu, G.F. Lin, and X.T. Luo. 1986. Comparison of action of Panax ginsenosides and Panax quinquonosides on anti-warm stress in mice. Journal of Shenyang College of Pharmacy 3(3):170-172. Cheng, X.J., X.R. Shi, and B. Lin. 1988. Effects of ginseng root saponins on brain Ach and serum corticosterone in normobaric hypoxia stressed mice. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Chopra, R.N., and I.C. Chopra. 1959. A review of work on Indian medicinal plants. Indian Council of Medical Research Special Report Series No. 1, pp. 99, 107. Coeugniet, E.G., and E. Elek. 1987. Immunomodulation with Viscum album and Echinacea purpurea extracts. Onkologie 10(3 Suppl.):27-33. Corsi, S. 1987. Report on Trial of Bilberry Anthocyanosides (Tegens-inverni della beffa) in the Medical Treatment of Venous Insufficiency of the Lower Limbs. Casa di Cura S. Chiara, Florence, Italy. Dahanukar, S.A., S.M. Karandikar, and M. Desai. 1984. Efficacy of Piper longum in childhood asthma. Indian Drugs 21:384-388. Duke, J.A. 1986. Handbook of Northeastern Indian Medicinal Plants. Quarterman Press, Lincoln, Mass. Duke, J.A. 1988. Handbook of Nuts. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. Duke, J.A. 1989. Ginseng: A Concise Handbook. Reference Publications Inc., Algonac, Mich. Duke, J.A. 1992a. Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. Duke, J.A. 1992b. Handbook of Biologically Active Phytochemicals and Their Activities. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. Duke, J. 1993. Lupinus perennis: hypotensive wildflower under hypertensive wires. Coltsfoot 14(6):4-5. Duke, J.A., and E.S. Ayensu. 1985. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. Duke, J.A., and R.V. Martinez. In press. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. In Handbook of Ethnobotanicals (Peru). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla. Dumont, E., E. Petit, T. Tarrade, and A. Nouvelot. 1992. UV-C irradiation-induced peroxidative degradation of microsomal fatty acids and proteins: protection by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 13(3):197-203. EEC Directive 75/318/EEC as amended. Fang, X., N. Shen, and B. Lin. 1986. Beneficial changes in prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 by ginsenosides in myocardial infarction and reperfusion of dogs. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 7:226-230. Farnsworth, N.R., O. Akerele, A.S. Bingel, D.D. Soejarta, and Z. Eno. 1985. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull. World Health Organ. 63(6):965-981. Farnsworth, N.R., and R.W. Morris. 1976. Higher plants: the sleeping giant of drug development. Am. J. Pharm. March/April:46. Feher, H., et al. 1990. Hepaprotective activity of silymarin therapy in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. Orv. Hetil. 130:51. Ferenci, P., B. Dragosics, H. Dittrick, et al. 1989. Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. J. Hepatol. 9(1):105-113. Flemming, K. 1971. Therapeutic effect of silymarin on x-irradiated mice. Arzneimittelforschung 21(9):1373-1375. Foster, S. 1990. Ginkgo. American Botanical Council, Austin, Tex. Gatta, L. 1982. Controlled Clinical Trial Among Patients Designed to Assess the Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Tegens 160. Ospedale Filippo del Ponte, Varese, Italy. Gilhooley, M. 1989. Pharmaceutical drug regulation in China. Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal 44:21-39. Guerrini, M. 1987. Report on Clinical Trial of Bilberry Anthocyanosides in the Treatment of Venous Insufficiency of the Lower Limbs. Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica e Metodologia Clinica, Universit de Siena, Italy. Haas, H. 1981. Brain disorders and vasoactive substances of plant origin. Planta Med. (Suppl.):257-265. Han, B.H., M.H. Park, L.K. Woo, W.S. Woo, and Y.N. Han. 1979. Studies on antioxidant components of Korean ginseng. Korean Biochemistry Journal 12(1):33. Handbook of Domestic Medicine and Common Ayurvedic Remedies. 1979. Central Council for Research in Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, New Delhi, pp. 91-112. Hirayama, T. 1986. Nutrition and cancer--a large scale cohort study. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 206:299-311. Jacob, A., M. Pandey, S. Kapoor, and R. Saroja. 1988. Effect of the Indian gooseberry (amla) on serum cholesterol levels in men aged 35-55 years. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 42:939-944. Kang-Yum, E., and S.H. Oransky. 1992. Chinese patent medicine as a source of mercury poisoning. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 34(3):235-238. Kao, F.F. 1992. The impact of Chinese medicine on America. Am. J. Chin. Med. 20(1):1-16. Keller, K. 1991. Legal requirements for the use of phytopharmaceutical drugs in the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Ethnopharmacol. 32:225-229. Kirkland, J., H.F. Mathews, C.W. Sullivan III, and K. Baldwin, eds. 1992. Herbal and Magic Medicine: Traditional Healing Today. Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., and London. Kishore, P., P.N. Pandey, S.N. Pandey, and S. Dash. 1990. Preliminary trials of certain Ayurvedic drug formulation of Amalpitta. Sachitra Ayurved 33:40-45. Kulkarni, R.R., P.S. Patki, V.P. Jog, S.G. Gandage, and B. Patwardhan. 1991. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 33:91-95. Li, J.C., Y.P. Li, and L.S. Xue. 1988. Influence of ginseng saponins on the circadian rhythm in brain monoamine neurotransmitters. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Liu, C., and P. Xiao. 1992. Recent advances on ginseng research in China. J. Ethnopharmacol. 36:27-38. Lu, G., X.J. Cheng, and W.X. Yuan. 1988. Effect of ginseng root saponins on serum corticosterene and neurotransmitters of hypobaric hypoxic mice. IRCS Med. Sc. Libr. Compend. 5(6):259. Majno, G.M. 1975. Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Moerman, D.C. 1982. Geraniums for the Iroquois. A Field Guide to American Indian Medicinal Plants. Reference Publications, Algonac, Mich., 242 pp. Mousavi, Y., and H. Adlercreutz. 1993. Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex hormone-binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma human liver cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture. Steroids 58:301-304. Nath, D., N. Sethi, R.K. Singh, and A.K. Jain. 1992. Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic effects in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 36:147-154. Pandey, B.L., R.K. Goel, N.K.R. Pathak, M. Biswas, and P.K. Das. 1982. Effect of Tectona grandis linn. (common teak tree) on experimental ulcers and gastric secretion. Indian J. Med. Res. 76(Suppl.):89-94. Pei, Y.Q. 1983. A review of pharmacology and clinical use of piperine and its derivatives. Epilepsia 24:177-181. Perry, L.M. 1980. Medicinal Plants of East and Southeast Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Peterson, G., and S. Barnes. 1993. Genistein and biochanin A inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells but not epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. Prostate 22:335-345. Qian, B.C., X.X. Zhang, B. Li, C.Y. Xu, and X.Y. Deng. 1987. Effects of ginseng polysaccharides on tumor and immunological function in tumor-bearing mice. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 8:6-14. Qu, J.B., Y.N. Cao, and X.Y. Ma. 1988. Effects of ginseng leaves and root saponins on animals in acute hypoxia due to negative air pressure. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Raabe, A., M. Raabe, and P. Ihm. 1991. Therapeutic follow-up using automatic perimetry in chronic cerebroretinal ischemia in elderly patients: prospective double-blind study with graduated dose Ginkgo biloba treatment (EGb 761). Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 199(6):432-438. Rai, G.S., C. Shovlin, and K.A. Wesnes. 1991. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 12(6):350-355. Roesler, J., A. Emmendorffer, C. Stienmuller, B. Luettig, H. Wagner, and M.L. Lohmann-Matthes. 1991. Application of purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant Echinacea purpurea to test subjects mediates activation of the phagocyte system. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 13(7):931-941. Schaffler, K., and P. Reeh. 1985. Long-term drug administration effects of Ginkgo biloba on the performance of healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia. In Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extracts on Organic Cerebral Impairment. Eurotext Ltd., London. Shen, J.J., Y.Y. Jin, Y.S. Wu, and X. Zhou. 1987. Effects of ginseng saponins on 14C-arachidonic acid metabolism in rabbit platelets. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 22:166-169. Shukla, A.K. 1984. Endocrine Response of Certain Species on Albino Rats (doctoral thesis). Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Snider, S. 1991. Beware the unknown brew: herbal teas and toxicity. FDA Consumer (May):31-33. Solecki, R.S. 1975. Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal flower burial of northern Iraq. Science 190:880. Spanu, F., A. Tava, L. Pacetti, and E. Piano. 1993. Variability of oestrogenic isoflavone content in a collection of subterranean clover from Sicily. Journal of Genetics and Breeding 47:27-34. Stimpel, M., A. Proksch, H. Wagner, and M.L. Lohmann-Matthes. 1984. Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytotoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea. Infect. Immun. 46(3):845-849. Sumathikutty, M.A., K. Rajaraman, B. Sankarikutty, and A.G. Mathew. 1979. Chemical composition of pepper grades and products. Journal of Food Science and Technology 16:249-254. Swanston-Flatt, S.K., C. Day, P.R. Flott, et al. 1989. Glycemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes: studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res. 10(2):69-73. Taillandier, J. 1988. Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of cerebral disorders due to aging. In E.W. Funfgeld, ed. Rokan (Ginkgo Biloba): Recent Results in Pharmacology and Clinic. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Tang, B.Y., and N.R. Adams. 1981. Oestrogen receptors and metabolic activity in the genital tract after ovariectomy of ewes with permanent infertility caused by exposure to phytoestrogens. J. Endocrinol. 89(3):365-370. Teglio, L. 1987. Quad. Clin. Ostet. Ginecol. 42:221. Tong, L.S., and C.Y. Chao. 1980. Effects of ginsengoside Rg1 of Panax ginseng on mitosis in human blood lymphocytes in vitro. Am. J. Chem. Med. 8(3):254. Tsumura, A. 1991. Kampo, How the Japanese Updated Traditional Herbal Medicine. Japan Publications, Inc., Tokyo and New York. Upadhyaya, S.D., C.M. Kansal, and N.N. Pandey. 1982. Clinical evaluation of Piper longum on patients of bronchial asthma--a preliminary study. Nagarjuna 25:256-258. Ura, H., T. Obara, K. Okamura, and M. Namiki. 1993. Growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells by flavonoids. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 20(13):2083-2085. Varkonyi, T. 1971. Brain edema in the rat induced by triethyltin sulfate. 10 Effect of silymarin on the electron-microscopy picture. Arzneimittelforschung 21(1):148-149. Verma, S.K., and A. Bordia. 1988. Effect of Commiphora mucul (gum guggul) in patients with hyperlipidemia with special reference to HDL cholesterol. Indian J. Med. Res. 87:356-360. Vogel, V.L. 1970. American Indian Medicine. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Okla. Wagner, H., B. Geyer, Y. Kiso, H. Hikino, and G.S. Rao. 1986. Coumestans as the main active principles of the liver drugs Eclipta alba and Wedelia calendulacea. Planta Med.:370-377. Wall Street Journal. 1993. Vital statistics: disputed cost of creating a drug. November 9. Wang, B.X., J.C. Cui, and A.J. Lui. 1980. The effect of polysaccharides of root of Panax ginseng on the immune function. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 17:312-320. Weitbrecht, W.V., and W. Jansen. 1985. Doubleblind and comparative (Ginkgo biloba versus placebo) therapeutic study in geriatric patients with primary degenerative dementia--a preliminary evaluation. In A. Agnoli et al., eds. Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Organic Cerebral Impairment. John Libbey Eurotext Ltd., London. Witte, S., I. Anadere, and E. Walitza. 1992. Improvement of hemorheology with Ginkgo biloba extract: decreasing a cardiovascular risk factor. Fortschr. Med. 110(13):247-250. World Health Organization. 1991. Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines. Programme on Traditional Medicines, Geneva. Yabe, T., M. Chat, E. Malherbe, and P.P. Vidal. 1992. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the guinea pig vestibular system. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 42(4):595-604. Yanagihara, K., A. Ito, T. Toge, and M. Numoto. 1993. Antiproliferative effects of isoflavones on human cancer cell lines established from the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Res. 53(23):5815-5821. Yang, Y., Z. Chen, G. Luo, and Y. Zhang. 1988. The mechanism of inhibitory effects of panaxadiol saponin on rabbit platelet aggregation. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Youngken, H.W. 1950. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. McGraw-Hill, New York. Yuan, W.X., X.J. Wu, and F.X. Yang. 1988. Effects of ginseng root saponins on brain monoamine and serum corticosterone in heat stressed mice. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Zhang, F.L., and X. Chen. 1987. Effects of ginsenosides on sympathetic neurotransmitter release in pithed rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 8:217-220. Zhang, F.L., A.G. Meehan, and M.J. Rand. 1988. Effects of ginsenosides on noradrenergic transmission, histamine response and calcium influx in rabbit ear isolated artery. Presented at the 5th Southeast Asian and Western Pacific Regional Meeting of Pharmacologists, Chinese Pharmacological Association, Beijing. Zhang, J.T. 1989. Progress of research on three kinds of anti-aging drugs. Information of the Chinese Pharmacological Society 6(3-4):4.