Ohio Model Curriculum – Physical Science

This page features the information aligning Gardens to the biology standards:


1)  Overall Goals


• Know, use and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world;

-Hydrology, habitat alteration and development, and plant communities all relate to the creation of habitat for living organisms.

-Students can relate the role of gardens to the environment and natural world

• Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations, distinguishing science from pseudoscience

-Students will be able to gather various plant data from the gardens, and will be able to explain and analyze the data collected

• Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge;

-The gardens  allows the students to understand that scientific knowledge is constantly changing and improving.

-Students will be able to learn new ways to better improve gardens

• Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

-Students could create experiments related to the gardens

-They can collect data/ observations which is very important in science practices

2) Specific Curricular Goals

Science Inquiry and Application

• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;

-Students determine the quality of the garden  in its environment  based on observations and specific plants located. They identify questions and concepts that link biological findings to the physical environment, i.e. Is this plant the right plant for this garden? What role does this garden have in the ecosystem?

• Design and conduct scientific investigations;

- Students can create gardens, and collect data on the impact it has in the environment, thus conducting experiments


• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;

-The use of smartphones and QR codes can be used as a technological aid in identifying the plants in the various types of gardens.


• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);

- The gardens can be used a model gardens for citizens in the community

- They can also determine  future development of gardens that will be best suitable for the environment.


• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and

-Students relate habitat to the biology of plants located in specific gardens. They can determine why specific habitats support specific plants and what roles these plants have.


• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

- Students use their own data to determine the quality of the garden create and argue why the garden is beneficial or not.

Course Content

  • Study of Matter


A) Classification of Matter

- Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous

- Properties of Matter

- States of Matter and its Changes

B) Atoms

- Models of the Atom (components)

- Ions (cations and anions)

- Isotopes

C) Periodic Trends of the Elements

- Periodic Law

- Representative Groups

D) Bonding and Compounds

- Bonding (ionic and covalent)

- Nomenclature

E) Reactions of Matter

- Chemical Reactions

- Nuclear Reactions

  • Energy and Waves


A) Conservation of Energy

- Quantifying Kinetic Energy

- Quantifying Gravitational Potential Energy

- Energy is Relative

B) Transfer and Transformation of Energy

C) Waves

- Refraction, reflection, diffraction, absorption, superposition

- Radiant energy and the electromagnetic spectrum

- Doppler shift

D) Thermal Energy

E) Electricity

- Movement of electrons

- Current

- Electric potential (voltage)

- Resistors and transfer of energy

  • Forces and Motions


A) Motions

- Introduction to one-dimensional vectors

- Displacement, velocity (constant, average and instantaneous) and acceleration

- Interpreting position vs. time and velocity vs. time graphs

    -Students can graph the plant growth rate as well the expansion of the planr


B) Forces

- Force diagrams

- Types of forces (gravity, friction, normal, tension)

- Field model for forces at a distance

C) Dynamics

  • The Universe

A) History of the Universe

B) Galaxy Formation

C) Stars

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