PHWH

Ohio Model Curriculum –Environmental Science

Alignment with Primary Headwater Habitat Protocol

1) Overall Goals

• Know, use and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world;

-Stream morphology (substrate, pool depth and bankfull width) all relate to the creation of habitat for living organisms. High scores correlate with better habitat improving biodiversity

• Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations, distinguishing science from pseudoscience;

-The HHEI metric scores predict the suitability of the habitat for aquatic life.

-Absence of living creatures when HHEI metrics indicate they should be present is a sign of environmental degradation. Predictions are based on evidence.

• Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge;

-PHWH protocol is based on empirical evidence from thousands of streams that allow predictions about other streams to be made. New evidence may change the protocols or their interpretations

• Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

- Students learn about common scientific protocols, metrics and how they are used to compare results gathered by anyone using the protocol.

- Students see how to interpret their results in light of the results gathered by others using the same protocols increasing discourse among scientists

2) Specific Curricular Goals

Science Inquiry and Application

• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;

-Students determine the quality of primary headwater streams to support life using three metrics based on physical measurements. They then collect biological evidence and determine if the quality of the stream determined using biological data supports the quality of the stream determined using physical data. They identify questions and concepts that link biological findings to the physical environment, i.e. what kind of organisms are found in what kind of physical environments.

• Design and conduct scientific investigations;

- Students Observe Streams, Hypothesize what kind of organisms will be found based on habitat, Predict what kinds of organisms will be found, Follow a standardized protocol to gather data using replicates and different variables, Analyze results using data aligned to standardized protocol outcomes and then support or reject their hypoheses.

• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;

- Data can be entered electronically using an App that reports results to a central database. GPS coordinates are used to identify field site.

• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);

- Results are compared with other streams and other sites where the biological data do not support the physical data, and students have to hypothesize why.

- Results are used to determine the best place to sight future development and to conserve habitat.

• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and

-Students relate habitat to the biology of organisms determining why specific habitats support organisms that are more sensitive to changes in high quality environments

• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

- Students use their own data to determine best uses for streams based on data.

Course Content

I. Biosphere

  • Evolution and adaptation in populations

i. Students will be able to go into the spring and identify the different species co-adapting

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS2-8,  HS-LS4-1, HS-LS4-2,

ii.Students will then be able to determine the native and invasive organisms within the stream

iii. Students can view previous phwh data sets to see how wildlife species have changed over time.

  • Biodiversity

i. Students will be able to examine different species of macroinvertebrates, fish and plant life in order to learn the variation of life forms around/ in the stream area

  • Ecosystems (Equilibrium, species interactions, stability)

i. Students would be able to learn the differences between the different habitats of different wildlife(Fish/Macroinvertebrates/Salamanders) in the area and what causes the wildlife to live in streams with plenty of rocks and leaf debris

ii.Students will learn what different adaptations that fish, macroinvertebrates and salamanders have which allows them to live in these environments

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS4-3.

  • Population dynamics

i.Students would learn how fish, macroinvertebrates and salamanders are able to cohabitate with different organisms including invertebrates, plants, amphibians, reptiles and fish

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS2-1

ii.Student will be able to see how fish, macroinvertebrates and salamanders are able to survive using different adaptations and synapomorphies

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS4-3.

II. Atmosphere

  • Atmospheric properties and currents

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-4

i. Students will be able to see how the atmosphere affects the habitat of the primary headwater through the percentage of cloud coverage, precipitation and canopy cover from the trees

III. Lithosphere

  • Geologic events and processes

i. Students will be able to see how erosion and pebble counts plays a role in the ecology of the primary headwater

ii. Erosion will be assessed through the amount of pools and riffles and the sinusoidal movement of the primary headwater

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-5

IV. Hydrosphere

  • Oceanic currents and patterns (as they relate to climate)

i. Oceanic currents would not be directly related to primary headwater but the students will be able to understand how climate correlates to the flow and pattern of the flowing stream

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-2.

  • Surface and groundwater flow patterns and movement

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-5

i. Students will be able to see the flow pattern and the sinusoidal movements of the stream by doing an initial observation walk in the tested area.

ii. Students will be able to see the pattern of the primary headwater through sketches from 3 different observed locations

  • Cryosphere

i. Students will be able to observe what a frozen stream looks like only if the conditions are met and the water freezes

ii. If the conditions are met, the students can observe what activity is present and what the ecology of the stream looks like in the winter months

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-5

V. Movement of matter and energy through the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere

  • Energy transformations

i. Students will be able to understand how energy is passed along in an ecosystem by witnessing predator/ prey relationships in the stream

This corresponds to the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS2-4.

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

i. Students will be able to observe the interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors in the stream (i.e. lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere)

This corresponds to the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS4-5.

  • Ecosystems

i. Students will be able to observe the ecosystem of a primary headwater as a whole

ii. Students will be able to understand the interactions between plants and animals in the aquatic habitat

This corresponds to the Next Generation Science Standard HS-LS4-5.

  • Climate and weather

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-2, and HS-ESS2-4

i. Students will be able to identify stormwater damage and predict where the stormwater rises

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-5

ii. Data can be observed from macroinvertebrates, fish and salamanders to show how the climate impacts the amount and types of species in the environment

This corresponds with the Next Generation Science Standard HS-ESS2-5

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