PHWH

Ohio Model Curriculum – Biology

Alignment with Primary Headwater Habitat Protocol

1) Overall Goals

• Know, use and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world;

- Stream morphology (substrate, pool depth and bankfull width) all relate to the creation       of habitat for living organisms. High scores correlate with better habitat improving biodiversity

• Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations, distinguishing science from pseudoscience;

-The HHEI metric scores predict the suitability of the habitat for aquatic life.

-Absence of living creatures when HHEI metrics indicate they should be present is a sign of environmental degradation. Predictions are based on evidence.

• Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge;

-PHWH protocol is based on empirical evidence from thousands of streams that allow predictions about other streams to be made. New evidence may change the protocols or their interpretations

• Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

- Students learn about common scientific protocols, metrics and how they are used to compare results gathered by anyone using the protocol.

- Students see how to interpret their results in light of the results gathered by others using the same protocols increasing discourse among scientists

 

2) Specific Curricular Goals

Science Inquiry and Application

• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;

-Students determine the quality of primary headwater streams to support life using three metrics based on physical measurements. They then collect biological evidence and determine if the quality of the stream determined using biological data supports the quality of the stream determined using physical data. They identify questions and concepts that link biological findings to the physical environment, i.e. what kind of organisms are found in what kind of physical environments.

• Design and conduct scientific investigations;

- Students Observe Streams, Hypothesize what kind of organisms will be found based on habitat, Predict what kinds of organisms will be found, Follow a standardized protocol to gather data using replicates and different variables, Analyze results using data aligned to standardized protocol outcomes and then support or reject their hypotheses.

• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;

- Data can be entered electronically using an App that reports results to a central database. GPS coordinates are used to identify field site.

• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);

- Results are compared with other streams and other sites where the biological data do not support the physical data, and students have to hypothesize why.

- Results are used to determine the best place to sight future development and to conserve habitat.

• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and

-Students relate habitat to the biology of organisms determining why specific habitats support organisms that are more sensitive to changes in high quality environments

• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

- Students use their own data to determine best uses for streams based on data.

Course Content

  • Heredity

    • Cellular genetics

      • Students will be able to observe salamander cells under microscopes

    • Structure and Function of DNA cells

      • Students will be able to watch a video tutorial that explains the structure and function of DNA in macroinvertebrates and salamanders

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS1-1 and HS-LS1-2.

    • Genetic mechanisms and inheritance

      • Students will be able to compare different salamanders in different life cycle stages

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS1-4, HS-LS3-1, HS-LS3-2, and HS-LS3-3.

    • Mutations

      • Students will be able to observe the different mutations in salamanders which may benefit or inhibit the ability for the salamander to survive

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS3-2.

    • Modern genetics

      • Students will be able to construct punnett squares looking at different phenotypes of salamanders

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS1-4, HS-LS3-1, HS-LS3-2, and HS-LS3-3

  • Evolution

    • Natural Selection

      • Students will be able to observe different natural selection between different salamanders in the area

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS4-1, HS-LS4-2, HS-LS4-3, HS-LS4-4, HS-LS4-5, and  HS-LS2-8.

    • Mutation

      • Students will be able to observe the different mutations in salamanders which may benefit or inhibit the ability for the salamander to survive

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS3-2.

 
  • Genetic drift

  • Gene Flow

  • Diversity of Life: This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS2-2

    • Students collect macroinvertebrates identifying them by morphological characteristics that indicate relatedness

    • Students compare macroinvertebrates from different taxonomic groups according to their degree of tolerance or sensitivity to disturbance indicating diversity

  • Diversity and Interdependence of Life

    • Diversity of Life Ecosystems

      • Students will be able to observe the distribution and abundance of salamanders, macroinvertebrates and plants which illustrates the diversity of the stream

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS1-4, HS-LS3-1, HS-LS3-2, and HS-LS3-3.

    • Homeostasis

      • Students will be able to hold and look at different organisms such as salamanders or macroinvertebrates to understand the internal regulation that the organism must go through while living in an aquatic environment

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS1-3.

 
  • Carrying Capacity

    • Students will be able to understand the purpose of a carrying capacity when viewing different predator/ prey relationships

    • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS2-1.

  • Classification Systems are Frameworks created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms

    • Students can compare the number of individuals of a species in different microhabitats with the availability of that microhabitat and can construct relationships between number of organisms and availability of habitat

    • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS2-2 and HS-LS2-6.

 
  • Cells

    • Cells structure and function

      • Students will be able to observe different organisms’ cells under microscopes and be able to relate the function to each structure in the cell of the organism

      • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS3-2.

 
  • Cellular process

    • Students can collect water specimens and determine the cellular aspects living within the water sample. After the collection and determining the living cells in the specimen the students can determine whether they are native or invasive species.

    • Students can compare the different cell structures and organelles of the different cells in the water sample.

    • If plant cells or photosynthesis relying organisms are also contained within the water sample students can discover and demonstrate the process of photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and cellular respiration

    • This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS1-5 and HS-LS1-7.

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