This page features the ORAM protocol aligned to the Ohio Science Standards:  

Ohio Model Curriculum – Biology

Alignment with ORAM Protocol


1)  Overall Goals


• Know, use and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world;

-Hydrology, habitat alteration and development, and plant communities all relate to the creation of habitat for living organisms.  High scores correlate with better habitat improving biodiversity


• Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations, distinguishing science from pseudoscience;

-The ORAM metric scores predict the category a wetland is (higher the score the better the wetland, meaning more biodiversity)

- Predictions for each metric are based on evidence that they collect while completing the ORAM


• Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge;

-ORAM protocol is based on empirical evidence from wetlands across Ohio.  New evidence may change the protocols or their interpretations


• Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

- Students learn about common scientific protocols, metrics and how they are used to compare results gathered by anyone using the protocol.

- Students see how to interpret their results in light of the results gathered by others using the same protocols increasing discourse among scientists

2) Specific Curricular Goals

Science Inquiry and Application

• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations;

-Students determine the quality of wetland to support life using six metrics based evidence from observations. They identify questions and concepts that link biological findings to the physical environment, i.e. what type of plant species were prevalent? What was the coverage of invasive species in the wetland?


• Design and conduct scientific investigations;

- Students observe wetlands, and hypothesize the hydrology, habitat alteration and development, and plant communities present in the wetland. They follow a standardized protocol to gather data and score the wetland.


• Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications;

- The use of QR Codes to connect the students to the six metrics allows the use of technology in the completion of the ORAM.


• Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence (critical thinking);

- Results are compared with other wetlands and other sites where the biological data does not support the physical data, and students have to hypothesize why.

- Results are used to determine the best place to sight future development and to conserve habitat.


• Recognize and analyze explanations and models; and

-Students relate habitat to the biology of organisms determining why specific habitats support organisms that are more sensitive to changes in high quality environments


• Communicate and support a scientific argument.

- Students use their own data to determine the quality of the wetland based on data.


Course Content

  • Heredity

    • Cellular genetics

    • Structure and Function of DNA cells

    • Genetic mechanisms and inheritance

    • Mutations

    • Modern genetics

-Students can look and determine if there are mutations of plants contained within the wetland. The students can investigate what is the cause of the mutation.

-Using Mendel's theory and work the students can discover how the genes of the parent generation relates to the of the second generation of the species when determining the types of plant communities that exist within a wetland.

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS1-1, HS-LS1-2, HS-LS1-4, HS-LS3-1, HS-LS3-2, and HS-LS3-3.

  • Evolution

    • Natural Selection

    • Mutation

    • Genetic drift

    • Gene Flow

    • Diversity of Life


-Students collect varying plant samples identifying them by morphological characteristics that indicate relatedness

-Using the data collected by the students the students can compare and contrast the diversity of a well-developed wetland and a newly-developed wetland.

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS4-1, HS-LS4-2, HS-LS4-3, HS-LS4-4, HS-LS4-5, and HS-LS2-8.

  • Diversity and Interdependence of Life

    • Diversity of Life Ecosystems: HS-LS2-2

    • Homeostasis

    • Carrying Capacity

    • Classification Systems are Frameworks created by scientists for describing the vast diversity of organisms indicating the degree of relatedness between organisms

-Students can identify the carrying capacity of the wetland being studied. From the use of observation of the current species residing within the habitat. How can the elimination of a plant species or cellular organism going to hurt or help the wetland?

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS2-1.


-Students can observe the buffering land and determine if the area is in a position of homeostasis and hypothesis the effects an invasive species or the elimination of a particular plant species would affect the homeostasis of the current buffer zone.

-Students can determine the relatedness of the plant species that are located within local wetlands.

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Codes HS-LS1-4, HS-LS3-1, HS-LS3-2, HS-LS1-3 and HS-LS3-3.

  • Cells

    • Cells structure and function

    • Cellular process

-Students can collect water specimens and determine the cellular aspects living within the water sample. After the collection and determining the living cells in the specimen the students can determine whether they are native or invasive species.

-Students can compare the different cell structures and organelles of the different cells in the water sample.

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS1-1 and HS-LS1-2 and also HS-LS3-2 and HS-LS3-3.

-If plant cells or photosynthesis relying organisms are also contained within the water sample students can discover and demonstrate the process of photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and cellular respiration

- Students can take a collection of plants inhabiting the current wetland and microscopically look at the different plant cells and compare and contrast the cell structures and organelles contained within the multiple plants.

This correlates with the Next Generation Science Standard Code HS-LS1-5 and HS-LS1-7.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *