Mitigation through Migration

Climate and the Community

As the climate changes, organisms have trouble adapting to their fluctuating environment. Because most creatures have evolved to specific climate conditions and weather patterns, it is taxing when these standards move beyond what the organism can tolerate.The quick solution would appear to be migration, but even the most travel ready organisms would be at a disadvantage when they move outside of their community. Many organisms have coevolved with the other species in its ecosystem and rely upon each other for support.

For example, Splachnum ampullulaceum (pictured below)is a moss that lives on the dung of white tailed deer — only white tailed deer. The deer are drawn into bogs by the promise of ripening cranberries and leave droppings, which S. ampullulaceum quickly colonize. If the deer were to migrate, the moss evolved specifically for their excrement would be left behind and bereft of a habitat. In this way, ecosystem migrations are slowed by their weakest link. Although birds and other animals may find it easy to fly, swim, crawl, or hop away, the greener members of their ecosystem are fiercely constrained. Splachnum ampullulaceum rises only a few centimeters from the dung pile it calls its temporary home and has little power to migrate thousands of miles from its bog.

Pictured Below: Splachnum ampullulaceum

splachnum

 

Although migration can do a lot to mitigate the effects of climate change, it cannot always be implemented fast enough for entire communities to move. The species richness (number of species) in a community is expected to drop when faster migration is required. Although this can weaken a community’s resilience, a loss in biodiversity doesn’t have to be a death sentence. Migration still brings a ray of hope to ecosystems around the warming globe.

– By Caroline G.

To learn more about how individuals interact in a community click this link: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/ecol_com/ecol_com.html

References:

Anthelme, F. (2014). Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in a face of climate change.Frontiers in Plant Scince, 5, 1-15. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00387 http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8f4505f6-9657-4190-a73e-fab63eea13c2%40sessionmgr198&vid=3&hid=106

Kimmerer, R. H. (2003). Gathering Moss: A Natural and Cultural History of Mosses. Oregon State University Press: Corvallis.

Splachnum ampullulaceum. (2004). [Picture of Splachnum ampullulaceum including sporophyte]. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service. Retrieved from: http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=SPAM5

The Complexity of Bird Migration

Even for the species that are able to migrate to avoid the dangers of environmental changes due to climate change, the path is sometimes more complex than one might think. The speed of the habitat changes due to climate warming is one of the factors that makes it difficult for migratory birds (who are already accustomed to seasonal movement) to adapt.

As birds attempt to acclimate to the changing winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, they’re beginning to arrive early from their southern habitat, and leave later. This change has been slow in coming. Now that they are beginning to spend a longer period in their northern breeding area they have encountered a new problem. The food supply is inadequate for this change. There are not enough worms and insects to accommodate the birds longer stay and many birds are beginning to starve as a result.

A recent Canadian study has shown that the Wood Thrush, a migratory songbird (pictured below), has been consistent in its departure times but very inconsistent in its path of migration.

Copyright 2005 All USA and International rights reserved.

Copyright 2005 All USA and International rights reserved.

Wood thrush–Steve Maslowski/USFWS

The adaptation of migratory timing and migratory routes has put some bird species in harm’s way by interjecting their migratory season with the hurricane season in the North Atlantic. As common sense would presume, hurricanes and birds are not a good mix.

Many people may not realize that birds are very sensitive to even small changes in temperature.(A change of 2 degrees fahrenheit can reduce a small bird’s chance of survival by 40%). Since it is estimated that the average temperature on the planet will rise between 3 and 6 degrees fahrenheit by the year 2200, birds will need to adapt quickly, along with the entire planetary ecosystem.

If you are interested in learning more about the complexity of bird migration the following link is a good place to start.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140723141820.htm

-Travis K.

Water Fowls

https://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats-to-Wildlife/Global-Warming/Effects-on-Wildlife-and-Habitat/Birds-and-Waterfowl.aspx

waterfowel

 Global climate change really affects the Migration pattern of a Water Fowls. An example of this is that it affects some of the breeding grounds for these birds. One of these breeding grounds is the Prairie Pothole Region,which is located on the border  of  Canada and the United States. “This can lead to a 9-69 percent reduction in the abundance of ducks breeding” . Some of the species that this affects are mallards, gadwall, blue winged teal, northern pintail, canvasbacks, redheads, and ruddy ducks.

-Gabi M.

The Complexity of Bird Migration: Wood Thrush

The Complexity of Bird Migration

Even for the species that are able to migrate to avoid the dangers of environmental changes due to climate change, the path is sometimes more complex than one might think. The speed of the habitat changes due to climate warming is one of the factors that makes it difficult for migratory birds (who are already accustomed to seasonal movement) to adapt.

As birds attempt to acclimate to the changing winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, they’re beginning to arrive early from their southern habitat, and leave later. This change has been slow in coming. Now that they are beginning to spend a longer period in their northern breeding area they have encountered a new problem. The food supply is inadequate for this change. There are not enough worms and insects to accommodate the birds longer stay and many birds are beginning to starve as a result.

A recent Canadian study has shown that the Wood Thrush, a migratory songbird (pictured below), has been consistent in its departure times but very inconsistent in its path of migration.

Copyright 2005 All USA and International rights reserved.

Copyright 2005 All USA and International rights reserved.

Wood thrush

 

The adaptation of migratory timing and migratory routes has put some bird species in harm’s way by interjecting their migratory season with the hurricane season in the North Atlantic. As common sense would presume, hurricanes and birds are not a good mix.

Many people may not realize that birds are very sensitive to even small changes in temperature.(A change of 2 degrees fahrenheit can reduce a small bird’s chance of survival by 40%). Since it is estimated that the average temperature on the planet will rise between 3 and 6 degrees fahrenheit by the year 2200, birds will need to adapt quickly, along with the entire planetary ecosystem.

If you are interested in learning more about the complexity of bird migration the following link is a good place to start.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140723141820.htm  

Igniting Streams of Learning in Science International (ISLSI)

We are delighted to announce that we have updated our program name to Igniting Streams of Learning in Science International. Due to our expanding presence internationally, in countries such as Pakistan and the Dominican Republic, we have decided to update our name. Don’t worry, we still have the same mission and goals as an educational program, and will continue to implement various educational programs throughout Northeast Ohio.

ISLSI in the Dominican Republic

We are delighted to announce that we are working on joint project with Counterpart International and ISLSI in the Dominican Republic.  Counterpart has launched the Coastal Communities Resiliency Program, a community-based environmental program, which will establish climate resiliency programs that will serve as learning laboratories to local communities. The program will incorporate part of ISLSI’s mission and learning approach with the establishment of peer-to-peer learning and youth development through hands-on-learning. For more information about Counterpart International, click here.

ISLSI Summer Institute

 

We are continuing the International ISLS program in the summer! From June 15 through July 5, we will host a group of Pakistani high school students. Over their 3-week stay, we will go to Cleveland, Hiram, Washington DC, and Chincoteague Island. We will be joined by three local Ohio schools at various points during the program.

Environmental Tree Awareness Program: April 21-25, 2015

We are delighted to announce a new program! The Environmental Tree Awareness program will occur from April 21 through April 25. Ten Cleveland Metropolitan School District high schools will be involved in ETA, which is funded by the International Associations of Arboriculture. The program will involve hands-on-learning in learning communities using a tree kit. Students will learn tree planting, tree identification, and grafting to develop service learning projects that they will implement in their respective communities. The program is aligned to Ohio’s New Learning Standards for 9th-12th biology.

 

Cleveland Water Alliance: Clean Water Tour & Sweepstakes

Celebrate the Year of Clean Water and enter to win big in the Clean Water Tour & Sweepstakes! From January through October 2015, our partner organizations are hosting a series of fun, family-friendly, and educational events that highlight local efforts to keep our water drinkable, swimmable, and fishable. Attend any of these events for a chance to win the grand prize or one of many family fun prize packages. The more events you attend, the greater your likelihood of winning!

To learn more go to the website!

ISLS August Institute

With the success of the June Institute all of the NPMs and faculty eagerly await the August Instititute the second of our 2013 institutes which begins tomorrow and will go until next Friday we have the same activities planned only there is expected to be more teachers this time. This institute is going to run fairly smoothly and we will hopefully end with 100% efficiency with being on board with the ISLS model by the end.

ISLS June Institute

For the past two weeks we had our first of two summer teacher institutes. We met with 13 teachers from the Cleveland Metropolitan area and successfully taught them ORAM, PHWH, and our new protocol ETA, which was well received. Overall the institute was successful and all the teachers are excited for our next meeting in September. We are currently waiting on their Action Research Plans.

ISLS 2013

This year we are working with teachers from the Cleveland Metropolitan area to supply the area with a brand new environmental curricula to be implemented in their schools. We have aligned the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the North East Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) standards, and the current science core curriculm with the protocols for the Primary Headwater Habitat Assessment (PHWH) and the Ohio Rapid Assessment Methods (ORAM). We hope to continue this for the other protocols used previously in the ISLS program. We are also working to develop a  new protocol focusing on trees and their effects on the watershed which we will call Environmental Tree Awareness (ETA). As always we will continue to strive to build our model wetlands and gardens. We hope to have lesson plans up and ready for anyone to come on here and view by the end of this 10 week internship.

UWISLS NPM Ryan Astalos working with the primary headwater found at Hiram College’s James H. Barrow Field Station